Medieval Noble Ladies and Their Servants: Who Wore What and Why - Medievalists.net (2022)

By Sophie Andrade

Putting the haute in 13th century haute couture – how clothing instantly messaged status, wealth, and place in noble society – from the royal ladies through the ranks of their household servants.

There was no such thing as shabby chic in the Middle Ages. The fancier the clothes, the wealthier the person. And it wasn’t just the nobility who paid attention to their garments – their servants’ uniforms also projected symbols of status and wealth. Here we’ll break down what some of the highest-ranking nobles wore in thirteenth-century England, the clothing they provided to their servants, and what it all meant.

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Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, and wife of Henry III, owned a wardrobe that has been described as “exquisite.” In addition to her decadently decorated chambers and chapel, Eleanor wore only the finest robes and gowns. Her appearance, and that of her immediate family and household, was a “facet of queenship,” and was of utmost importance when it came to displaying her power as it was an outward reflection of both her social and her political status.

For her sons, Eleanor purchased camlet tunics. Camlet was an imported fabric made in Asia, primarily Cyprus, out of camel or goat hair. For her daughter Margaret’s wedding, Eleanor and the king wore samite cloaks with gold braid and ermine mantles – an immense display of wealth and status to every guest in attendance.

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Ermine, a fur reserved especially for royalty, was soft and white with black spots originating from the stoat weasel. Samite was a very luxurious, heavy silk fabric woven with gold thread. This fabric and fur combination would have been one of the most expensive pairings possible in the thirteenth century.

Eleanor of Provence also acquired fabrics from Paris and Florence, and there is evidence of her purchasing gowns of wool, silk, and samite in an array of colours including burgundy, blue, and green. Many of her robes were decorated with silver and gold thread, as well as delicate pearl buttons. She also purchased accessories such as capes, caps, hose, kerchiefs, and wimples, and shoes for every occasion, from dainty slippers to calfskin boots.

This same display of monarchical wealth occurred when Isabella of England, Henry III’s sister, left the kingdom to marry the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II in Germany. The Roll of Cloths for October 8th, 1234 to October 27th, 1235, records the clothing and other fabrics Isabella took with her on her journey to marry Frederick. All her clothing and jewellery was paid for by her brother and given to her as a wedding gift.

She had several garments made of gold cloth, likely for the wedding ceremony, which was by far the most expensive fabric in her wardrobe. Another kind of gold cloth, called arest, sold for 10 shillings and 9 pence per piece in 1237, and Isabella used this decadent fabric to decorate her chapel. Of all the fabric in her wardrobe, scarlet, a luxurious wool, was the most prolific. According to the roll, Isabella had, “two complete robes of scarlet with nine panes of vair; a cloak, tunic and surcoat with sleeves of scarlet; a lined cloak of scarlet; two dressing gowns of scarlet.” The rest of Isabella’s wardrobe consisted of darker colours, such as blue, green, dark brown, and dark blue.

Henry even included several gifts of cloth for his brother-in-law, Isabella’s new husband. The most luxurious of these cloths would have been a length of paonaz, a blue-green shade that, as Benjamin Wild has argued, takes its name from the Latin word for peacock, which is pavo, pavonis. Henry also included lengths of scarlet, a green Cambrai cloth, camelin, blue cloth from Provins, and russet from Sempringham. This striking array of colours and ornate cloth, particularly the cloth of gold, would have greatly impressed the emperor and Isabella’s new subjects.

It was also not only Isabella who was dressed in stunning attire, but her entire entourage as well. Isabella’s servants and officials were given new robes to wear that were in line with their rank, surrounding the new empress and enhancing the splendor of her arrival in Germany.

The spectacle of all this carefully curated clothing would have portrayed the entire kingdom of England as a magnificently wealthy and dignified place.

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But make no mistake, ladies like Eleanor and Isabella were not to be upstaged. The ladies’ gifts of modest clothing to their servants served to further distinguish themselves as highest-ranking lady in the household.

As for the servants in these royal households, their robes would have been part of their compensation, along with their wages. The cloth, colour, and amount of fabric used varied according to the servant’s rank and status within the household and the robes may be new or used.

According to the accounts of Henry, son of Edward I, Henry’s head clerk’s daily wage was 4 ½ pence, while his robes were valued at 30 shillings and 8 pence – a significant expense indeed. The domestic officials who were of a lower rank than the clerks in Henry’s accounts, such as the cook and tailor, were paid 2 pence per day and their robes cost 9 shillings. It is evident that while the employees earned similar wages, the values of their robes varied greatly. It was the robes in this instance that demonstrated their difference in rank, rather than the money that they earned.

Robes that once belonged to wealthy nobles could also be given away in acts of charity. If worn for ceremonial purposes, the luxurious robes would be given away to minstrels or high-ranking servants once the original robe wearer’s duties had been fulfilled. After Simon de Montfort acted as Steward of England at Henry III’s wedding, he gave his robe to Henry’s master cook.

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Medieval Noble Ladies and Their Servants: Who Wore What and Why - Medievalists.net (3)

In Empress Isabella’s household, the difference in rank among the clerks was symbolized by the amount of cloth they received for their robes and what kind of fur was used for the trim. Higher-ranking servants were given clothes made of blue cloth with lamb fur, (shearling) while other, lower-ranking clerks wore robes of russet. Described as the “coarsest and cheapest” fabric, russet was a woolen cloth worn mainly by servants and labourers.

Any kind of dyed fabric with a fur trim would have been more impressive than a robe of russet, so the difference between clerks’ robes is clear. Lamb fur, however, was inexpensive and not nearly as luxurious as squirrel fur, which very high-ranking employees and some nobles often wore.

Isabella’s physician, Master Gilbert, received 11 ½ ells of burnet, 2 squirrel furs and 2 bis for his robe, while her ladies of the chamber received 10 ells of burnet and 2 bis each, and her laundress received 10 ½ ells of cloth (which kind of cloth is not indicated) with lamb and one coney. Burnet was made from softer wool than russet and was often used for making hose, and bis was another type of inexpensive fur, most likely made of deerskin. Here the difference in rank is noticeable in that Master Gilbert also received squirrel fur for his robes, while the ladies of the chamber, who were lower in rank, did not.

In addition to portraying the differences in rank among household staff, the robes and liveries of servants reflected their employer’s wealth and status. When seen in public or when hosting guests, to be surrounded by finely dressed servants was a positive representation of their power.

This idea is made clear in Robert Grosseteste’s Rules. The Rules were written for Margaret de Lacy, the countess of Lincoln, in the 1240s. It is a treatise written in French describing how Margaret should manage her estate and household. The sixteenth rule in the section on household management reads as follows:

The sixteenth rule teaches you in what clothing your men ought to wait on you at table. Order your knights and your gentlemen who wear your livery that they ought to put on that same livery every day, and especially at your table and in your presence to uphold your honour, and not old surcoats, and soiled cloaks, and cut-off coats.

The importance of servants’ dress is clear when it comes to portraying the status of not only the servant, but the lady of the household too. Clothing acted as a visual representation of their servants’ rank within their home, and their subordination, especially when compared to the clothing worn by the ladies themselves. The old adage, “vestim verus facit” – or, the clothes make the man – was evidently truer in thirteenth-century noble society than it is today.

Sophie Andrade is a recent graduate of the University of St Andrews with an MLitt in Medieval Studies. Her research focuses on medieval women, music, manuscripts, and castles. She lives in Nottingham, England.

Click here to read more from Sophie Andrade

Further Reading:

Medieval Noble Ladies and Their Servants: Who Wore What and Why - Medievalists.net (4)Medieval Noble Ladies and Their Servants: Who Wore What and Why - Medievalists.net (5)Grosseteste, Robert. “Rules.” In Walter of Henley and other treatises on estate management and accounting, edited by Dorothea Oschinksy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.

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Houston, Mary G. Medieval Costume in France and England. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1950.

Howell, Margaret. Eleanor of Provence. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Labarge, Margaret Wade. A Baronial Household of the Thirteenth Century. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1965.

Lachaud, Frédérique. “Liveries of Robes in England, c. 1200-c.1330.” English Historical Review 111, no. 441 (April 1996): 279-298.

Wild, Benjamin L. “The Empress’ New Clothes.” Medieval Clothing and Textiles 7 (2011): 1-29.

Wilkinson, Louise J. “The Imperial marriage of Isabella of England, Henry III’s sister.” In The Rituals and Rhetoric of Queenship: Medieval to Early Modern, edited by Liz Oakley-Brown and Louise J. Wilkinson, 20-36. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2009.

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FAQs

What did medieval noble ladies wear? ›

In the Middle Ages, ladies wore multiple layers of clothing, including a hose, a long underdress called a chemise, and a tunic or kirtle over the chemise. Noble women's dresses were made from fine linen, wool, and even silk and often had rich embroidery and even gemstones around the neck and hemlines.

What did female servants wear in medieval times? ›

Women's clothing consisted of an undertunic called a chemise, chainse or smock. This was usually made of linen. Over the chemise, women wore one or more ankle-to-floor length tunics (also called gowns or kirtles). Working class women wore ankle-length tunics belted at the waist.

What did servants wear in Middle Ages? ›

Higher-ranking servants were given clothes made of blue cloth with lamb fur, (shearling) while other, lower-ranking clerks wore robes of russet. Described as the “coarsest and cheapest” fabric, russet was a woolen cloth worn mainly by servants and labourers.

What did servant wear? ›

Servants wore turned up collars with a plain necktie or cravat and a crisp, white shirt. Plain, dark coloured waistcoats were worn by all the menservants and were usually a cast-off from the master. Trousers can be either long or short, tucked into socks or cut off and elasticated at the knee.

What do noble ladies wear? ›

A shawl was worn over it, which could also cover the head. The noblewoman wore a belt with a bag attached to it around her waist. At that time, social differences were reflected less in clothing than in jewelry. Chains, brooches, and arm, ear and finger rings were popular.

What clothing did nobles wear? ›

Noblemen wore tunics or jackets with hose, leggings and breeches. The wealthy also wore furs and jewellery. Women wore long gowns with sleeveless tunics and wimples to cover their hair. Sheepskin cloaks and woollen hats and mittens were worn in winter for protection from the cold and rain.

What did female servants wear? ›

Most women, nevertheless, worked as maids-of-all-work for the middle and lower-middle classes and wore a print dress with a cap and a rough apron in the morning to do heavy-cleaning duties followed by a black dress and a more delicate white cap and apron in the afternoon to welcome guests and perform lighter tasks.

What did a lady's maid wear? ›

No uniform was worn (unlike the lower servants), but simple, clean and neat attire was expected. The lady's maid was the female equivalent of the valet – who was the manservant to the gentleman of the house.

What did female servants do? ›

She worked alongside a house steward (a male domestic), buying provisions, dispensing funds as needed, and keeping household accounts. In addition, she was responsible for managing the lower order servants (the maids). One woman would often perform this position in conjunction with another.

What did female peasants wear in medieval times? ›

Peasant Clothing

Peasant men wore stockings or tunics, while women wore long gowns with sleeveless tunics and wimples to cover their hair. Sheepskin cloaks and woolen hats and mittens were worn in winter for protection from the cold and rain. Leather boots were covered with wooden patens to keep the feet dry.

What were medieval maids called? ›

The chambermaids were tasked with tidying and making rooms ready, preparing the fires, and emptying the chamberpots. Most domestic servants slept in shared chambers in the cellars or attics.

Did servants wear corsets? ›

Perhaps corsets were acceptable to those who bore the pain to be attractive. But the female servants downstairs are obliged to wear corsets as well, even though they don't share the same fashion worries. The corsets often make it painful to bend down to clean grates or scrub floors.

When did servants eat? ›

The first meal of the day for the servants was breakfast, which was eaten at 8am in the servants' hall or at the kitchen table. By this point in the morning, all but the highest ranking staff had done a morning's work and were undoubtedly ravenous.

What are the rules of a servant? ›

Servants should never offer any opinion to their employers, nor even to say good night or good morning except in reply to salutation. Never talk to another servant, or a person of your own rank, or to a child in the presence of your mistress, unless for necessity then do it as shortly as possible, and in a low voice.

What did maids do in the medieval times? ›

They were provided with food, clothes and boarding inside the homes where they were employed. They were responsible for all the details of household maintenance so that their Masters could focus on matters more fitting to their social status.

What did noble ladies do all day? ›

The daily life of the Noblewoman would include discussions on tournaments, betrothals, marriages, poetry and courtly love. A Noblewoman would be expected to oversee the education of the upper class girls who had sent to their households. A Noblewoman had to be able to take their husbands places at all times.

What does a noble lady do? ›

A noblewoman's job was to take care of a household and to have children. Noblewomen had no rights, as they were the property of their husband. A noblewoman was also not allowed to choose their husband. The noblewoman's father will choose for her.

Why did nobles wear capes? ›

A gas cape was a voluminous military garment designed to give rain protection to someone wearing the bulky gas masks used in twentieth-century wars. Rich noblemen and elite warriors of the Aztec Empire would wear a tilmàtli; a Mesoamerican cloak/cape used as a symbol of their upper status.

What colors did medieval nobles wear? ›

Wearing red coats was the exclusive right of the nobility in medieval times and the red robes of kings, cardinals, judges and executioners announced their power over life and death.

What did princesses wear in medieval times? ›

Clothing of Medieval Princess

In the making of the tunics and gowns which were the main items of a medieval princess' clothing, extensive use of furs and highly expensive materials such as silks for trimming and golden threads for lace work were used.

What clothes were worn in medieval times? ›

Basic garments now consisted of the smock, hose, kirtle, dress, belt, surcoat, girdle, cape, hood, and bonnet. Wealthier women would use fabrics and materials such as silk and fine linen; the lower classes would use wool and coarser linen.

What is a female personal servant called? ›

A lady's maid is a female personal attendant who waits on her female employer. The role of a lady's maid is similar to that of a gentleman's valet.

What is a female butler called? ›

A butler is usually male, and in charge of male servants, while a housekeeper is usually a woman, and in charge of female servants.

What do servants call their female masters? ›

The Master and Mistress of the House should be addressed as "Sir" and "My Lady" respectively. The eldest son should be addressed as "Mister Jonathan" and the youngest son as "Master Guy".

Where did ladies maids sleep? ›

So, the housekeeper usually slept near the maid-servants, and a female head cook slept near the Kitchen. The lady's maid was placed as close as possible to her mistress so that she could provide immediate attendance. Sometimes her room was also large enough for her to accomplishing starching.

Why are maid outfits a thing? ›

The French maid uniform originated in the early 19th century for servant duties, worn by females. The role of the French maid has evolved since the 19th century from a servant to an image of desires, a sexual fantasy.

Why do people wear maid outfits? ›

It's about the sexiness of taking on a more submissive role and the sheer empowerment of wearing an outfit that shows your body like nothing you've worn before. It's about taking advantage of quarantine and Spooky Season to wear something transgressive you'd never wear In Real Life.

Did ladies maids get married? ›

A great majority of female domestic servants did get married, of course. On the average, they were about 25 years old when they married. By the time of marriage, they had, on average, been in service for some twelve years, and had been placed in between three to five situations.

How much did a lady's maid earn? ›

She notes that a housekeeper for a zillionaire may earn up to $60,000 a year (the industry median salary is less than $20,000), but a “lady's maid” can take in $75,000. Full-time butlers can earn $70,000 a year, and some who travel around with a family on yachts or private jets could earn as much as $200,000 a year.

What are female servants of a queen or other noble lady called? ›

A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a Court, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman but of lower rank than the woman to whom she attended.

What did medieval princesses wear to bed? ›

Nearly everyone wore a cap or kerchief to bed to keep their heads warm. Women would braid their hair and tie it up to keep it from tangling. Most Medieval pictures show people sleeping in the nude, but there is evidence that by the 16th century, night shirts and night gowns were common.

What were ladies called in medieval times? ›

Women held the positions of wife, mother, peasant, artisan, and nun, as well as some important leadership roles, such as abbess or queen regnant. The very concept of woman changed in a number of ways during the Middle Ages, and several forces influenced women's roles during their period.

What did peasant girls wear? ›

Women wore long dresses and stockings made of wool. The most common colors for peasant clothing were brown, red or gray. Both men and women wore clogs made of thick leather. In cold weather, both men and women wore cloaks made of sheepskin or wool.

What is the highest maid called? ›

Head house-maid: the senior house maid, reporting to the Housekeeper. (Also called "House parlour maid" in an establishment with only one or two upstairs maids).

What is a male maid called? ›

Answer. The masculine gender of a maid is the Manservant.

Where do servants sleep in a castle? ›

Most domestic servants would have slept in shared chambers in either the cellars or attics of the castle buildings. There might also be simple buildings outside the castle for herdsmen, mill workers, wood-cutters, and craftspeople such as rope-makers, candle-makers, potters, basket-weavers, and spinners.

What was the purpose of a corset? ›

Corsets were worn, as both under and outer garments, to flatten the stomach and emphasize the fullness of the skirts and chest. In instances where corsets were worn as outer garments, decorative “stomachers” were worn over the laces on the front.

What was worn under the corset? ›

Light linen or cotton shifts (also called chemises) were worn beneath corsets to absorb sweat and protect the corset and wearer from each other, and also to function as underwear and protect other garments from the wearer and their sweat.

What age did girls start wearing corsets? ›

Corsets were considered essential; girls began wearing boxy, lightly boned ones when they were 6 to 8 months old.

Did servants eat leftovers? ›

Servants did often gather together and eat leftover food. I've used authentic historical recipes to recreate the tastes of the past including homemade pies, pickles and small pieces of elaborate desserts like Ribbon Jellies or Pears Poached in Port.

Do servants eat? ›

Servants' meals are "Breakfast", "Dinner" and "Supper" respectively whereas family meals are "Breakfast", "Luncheon", "Dinner" and often a late night "Supper". In both instances "Dinner" is the most formal meal of the day. Beer is served at all Servants' meals, including Breakfast, at the Butler's discretion.

Did servants ever get a day off? ›

Servants worked 17-hour days with time off limited to church on Sunday morning and one afternoon a week. SOCIAL historian Dr Pamela Cox, who presents Servants - The True Story Of Life Below Stairs, says: "Country houses wouldn't have been able to function without a vast hidden army of servants.

How do you treat servants? ›

How To Behave With Domestic Workers
  1. 1) Treat Your Maid With Respect. ...
  2. 2) Be Kind And Compassionate. ...
  3. 3) Ensure The Maid Is Not Overworked. ...
  4. 4) Communicate Appropriately. ...
  5. 5) Develop Trust. ...
  6. 6) Appreciate On Her Hard Work.

What is the order of servants? ›

The Secular Order of the Servants of Mary (Servite Secular Order) is a Catholic organization of lay men and women plus diocesan priests living their Christian faith in the context of the world.

What God says about servants? ›

In response to their disagreements, Jesus stated, “Whoever wants to be great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be slave (servant) of all. For even the Son of Man (Jesus) did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”

How did medieval people stay clean? ›

Clothes could be washed in a tub, often with stale urine or wood ash added to the water, and trampled underfoot or beaten with a wooden bat until clean. But many women did their washing in rivers and streams, and larger rivers often had special jetties to facilitate this, such as 'le levenderebrigge' on the Thames.

What was the main role of a lady in the Middle Ages? ›

Throughout the Medieval Period, women's most important role was that of a mother or child bearer, whether she was rich or poor, children were her first priority. Women's role in society was often compared to that which is written in the Bible.

Where did scullery maids sleep? ›

Housemaids, scullery maids and kitchen maids slept on the attic floor of the house. Two to a room, in some houses they even shared beds.

What did the lady of the manor wear? ›

The ladies of the manor were always dressed to the nines, even on the most boring of days. They wore expensive dresses made of fine materials, often layered with underskirts.

How did Royalty dress in medieval times? ›

The king would usually wear a well-embellished tunic with gold-work thread as a basic dress. On top of it, a surcoat was often worn which depicted the emblem of the King and his family. Robes and coats were also part of the King's costume at certain occasions.

What did medieval princesses wear to bed? ›

Nearly everyone wore a cap or kerchief to bed to keep their heads warm. Women would braid their hair and tie it up to keep it from tangling. Most Medieval pictures show people sleeping in the nude, but there is evidence that by the 16th century, night shirts and night gowns were common.

What did medieval brides wear? ›

Instead of a white gown, medieval brides usually wore dresses in deep jewel tones. Blue was a common choice because it symbolized purity. For wealthier ladies, gowns were made of expensive, luxurious fabrics like velvet, silk, and satin, and rich hues of red and gold were popular.

What did noble ladies do all day? ›

The daily life of the Noblewoman would include discussions on tournaments, betrothals, marriages, poetry and courtly love. A Noblewoman would be expected to oversee the education of the upper class girls who had sent to their households. A Noblewoman had to be able to take their husbands places at all times.

What did female peasants wear in medieval times? ›

Peasant Clothing

Peasant men wore stockings or tunics, while women wore long gowns with sleeveless tunics and wimples to cover their hair. Sheepskin cloaks and woolen hats and mittens were worn in winter for protection from the cold and rain. Leather boots were covered with wooden patens to keep the feet dry.

What did medieval ladies do all day? ›

A day in the life of a medieval woman could include working alongside men in the fields, teaching their children how to read, or even influencing politics at court, all while enduring fashion trends and health and hygiene practices that we might find questionable today.

What shoes did royalty wear in medieval times? ›

Medieval Shoes for Nobility

During the middle medieval times, closed shoes with a pointed front were also used by the nobility. During the 15th century long pointed shoes became very fashionable, these shoes were could be called crakows, crackowes, poulaines or pikes!

What color did royalty wear in medieval times? ›

Purple was especially revered in the Byzantine Empire. Its rulers wore flowing purple robes and signed their edicts in purple ink, and their children were described as being “born in the purple.” The reason for purple's regal reputation comes down to a simple case of supply and demand.

What did rich people wear in medieval time? ›

Towards the end of the Middle Ages, men of the wealthy classes sported hose and a jacket, often with pleating or skirting, or a tunic with a surcoat. Women wore flowing gowns and elaborate headwear, ranging from headdresses shaped like hearts or butterflies to tall steeple caps and Italian turbans.

Did medieval couples share a bed? ›

In medieval Europe, people shared bed with family and guests.

What were bras called in medieval times? ›

It was around this time that stays started to be called corsets in France, but many of these "shortened stays" or "short stays," as they were sometimes called in Britain, resembled earlier support garments as much as they resembled stays, with fitted cups that held the breasts apart.

What do princesses wear under their dresses? ›

A crinoline /ˈkrɪn. əl. ɪn/ is a stiff or structured petticoat designed to hold out a woman's skirt, popular at various times since the mid-19th century. Originally, crinoline described a stiff fabric made of horsehair ("crin") and cotton or linen which was used to make underskirts and as a dress lining.

What age did girls get married in medieval times? ›

In the Middle Ages children were married at a young age. Girls were as young as 12 when they married, and boys as young as 17. The arrangement of the marriage was based on monetary worth. The family of the girl who was to be married gives a dowry, or donation, to the boy she is to marry.

What materials were medieval dresses? ›

When it comes to medieval clothing, Europeans got by on five major components: leather, linen, wool, silk, and fur. Leather was used for belts and shoes, armour and heavy aprons.

What did brides wear before white? ›

For most of history, even Western brides did not wear white. In ancient Rome, where marriages were celebrated with parties and banquets—an important social event, if not a sacrament—brides wore long veils of deep yellow over a complicated six-part braided hairstyle.

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